表格序列化javascript(无框架)

2020/11/13 19:22 · javascript ·  · 0评论

想知道javascript中是否有没有jquery或任何允许我序列化表单并访问序列化版本的框架的函数?

小型的从序列化库不依赖框架。除此之外,您还需要自己实现序列化功能。(尽管重量为1.2 KB,为什么不使用它?)

这是纯JavaScript方法:

var form = document.querySelector('form');
var data = new FormData(form);
var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.send(data);

虽然它似乎仅适用于POST请求。

https://developer.mozilla.org/zh-CN/docs/Web/API/FormData

仅适用于现代浏览器

如果您以支持URLSearchParamsAPI的浏览器最新的浏览器)和FormData(formElement)构造函数(最新的浏览器)为目标,请使用以下命令:

new URLSearchParams(new FormData(formElement)).toString()

除了IE之外的所有地方

对于支持URLSearchParams但不支持FormData(formElement)构造函数的浏览器,请使用以下FormData polyfill和以下代码(除IE之外,其他所有地方都可以使用):

new URLSearchParams(Array.from(new FormData(formElement))).toString()

与IE 10兼容

对于甚至更老的浏览器(例如IE 10),也可以使用FormData polyfillArray.from如果需要,可以使用polyfill和以下代码:

Array.from(
  new FormData(formElement),
  e => e.map(encodeURIComponent).join('=')
).join('&')
function serialize (form) {
    if (!form || form.nodeName !== "FORM") {
            return;
    }
    var i, j, q = [];
    for (i = form.elements.length - 1; i >= 0; i = i - 1) {
        if (form.elements[i].name === "") {
            continue;
        }
        switch (form.elements[i].nodeName) {
            case 'INPUT':
                switch (form.elements[i].type) {
                    case 'text':
                    case 'tel':
                    case 'email':
                    case 'hidden':
                    case 'password':
                    case 'button':
                    case 'reset':
                    case 'submit':
                        q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].value));
                        break;
                    case 'checkbox':
                    case 'radio':
                        if (form.elements[i].checked) {
                                q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].value));
                        }                                               
                        break;
                }
                break;
                case 'file':
                break; 
            case 'TEXTAREA':
                    q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].value));
                    break;
            case 'SELECT':
                switch (form.elements[i].type) {
                    case 'select-one':
                        q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].value));
                        break;
                    case 'select-multiple':
                        for (j = form.elements[i].options.length - 1; j >= 0; j = j - 1) {
                            if (form.elements[i].options[j].selected) {
                                    q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].options[j].value));
                            }
                        }
                        break;
                }
                break;
            case 'BUTTON':
                switch (form.elements[i].type) {
                    case 'reset':
                    case 'submit':
                    case 'button':
                        q.push(form.elements[i].name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(form.elements[i].value));
                        break;
                }
                break;
            }
        }
    return q.join("&");
}

来源:http : //code.google.com/p/form-serialize/source/browse/trunk/serialize-0.1.js

这是TibTibs的略微修改版本:

function serialize(form) {
    var field, s = [];
    if (typeof form == 'object' && form.nodeName == "FORM") {
        var len = form.elements.length;
        for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
            field = form.elements[i];
            if (field.name && !field.disabled && field.type != 'file' && field.type != 'reset' && field.type != 'submit' && field.type != 'button') {
                if (field.type == 'select-multiple') {
                    for (j=form.elements[i].options.length-1; j>=0; j--) {
                        if(field.options[j].selected)
                            s[s.length] = encodeURIComponent(field.name) + "=" + encodeURIComponent(field.options[j].value);
                    }
                } else if ((field.type != 'checkbox' && field.type != 'radio') || field.checked) {
                    s[s.length] = encodeURIComponent(field.name) + "=" + encodeURIComponent(field.value);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return s.join('&').replace(/%20/g, '+');
}

禁用的字段将被丢弃,并且名称也经过URL编码。返回字符串之前,只对%20个字符进行正则表达式替换。

查询字符串的格式与jQuery $ .serialize()方法的结果相同。

我从Johndave Decano的答案开始。

这应该可以解决其职能答复中提到的一些问题。

  1. 用+符号替换%20。
  2. 如果单击“提交/按钮”类型以提交表单,则将仅提交它们。
  3. 重置按钮将被忽略。
  4. 该代码对我来说似乎是多余的,因为无论字段类型如何,它实际上都在做相同的事情。更不用说与诸如“ tel”和“ email”之类的HTML5字段类型不兼容了,因此我用switch语句删除了大多数细节。

如果按钮类型没有名称值,则仍将被忽略。

function serialize(form, evt){
    var evt    = evt || window.event;
    evt.target = evt.target || evt.srcElement || null;
    var field, query='';
    if(typeof form == 'object' && form.nodeName == "FORM"){
        for(i=form.elements.length-1; i>=0; i--){
            field = form.elements[i];
            if(field.name && field.type != 'file' && field.type != 'reset'){
                if(field.type == 'select-multiple'){
                    for(j=form.elements[i].options.length-1; j>=0; j--){
                        if(field.options[j].selected){
                            query += '&' + field.name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(field.options[j].value).replace(/%20/g,'+');
                        }
                    }
                }
                else{
                    if((field.type != 'submit' && field.type != 'button') || evt.target == field){
                        if((field.type != 'checkbox' && field.type != 'radio') || field.checked){
                            query += '&' + field.name + "=" + encodeURIComponent(field.value).replace(/%20/g,'+');
                        }   
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return query.substr(1);
}

这就是我当前使用此功能的方式。

<form onsubmit="myAjax('http://example.com/services/email.php', 'POST', serialize(this, event))">

如果您需要使用JSON格式的POST提交表单“ myForm”,则可以执行以下操作:

const formEntries = new FormData(myForm).entries();
const json = Object.assign(...Array.from(formEntries, ([x,y]) => ({[x]:y})));
fetch('/api/foo', {
  method: 'POST',
  body: JSON.stringify(json)
});

第二行从数组转换为:

[["firstProp", "firstValue"], ["secondProp", "secondValue"], ...and so on... ]

...变成常规对象,例如:

{"firstProp": "firstValue", "secondProp": "secondValue", ...and so on ... }

...它通过将mapFn传入Array.from()进行转换。此mapFn应用于每个[“ a”,“ b”]对,并将它们转换为{“ a”:“ b”},以便数组包含很多对象,每个对象只有一个属性。mapFn使用“解构”来获取该对的第一部分和第二部分的名称,并且它还使用ES6“ ComputedPropertyName”在mapFn返回的对象中设置属性名称(这就是为什么说“ [ x]:某物”,而不仅仅是“ x:某物”。

然后将所有这些单个属性对象传递到Object.assign()函数的参数中,该函数将所有单个属性对象合并为具有所有属性的单个对象。

Array.from():https :
//developer.mozilla.org/zh-CN/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Array/from

参数解构:https :
//simonsmith.io/destructuring-objects-as-function-parameters-in-es6/

有关计算属性名称的更多信息,请参见
作为JavaScript对象文字中属性名称的变量?

在所有浏览器中均可使用。

const formSerialize = formElement => {
  const values = {};
  const inputs = formElement.elements;

  for (let i = 0; i < inputs.length; i++) {
    values[inputs[i].name] = inputs[i].value;
  }
  return values;
}

const dumpValues = form => () => {
  
  const r = formSerialize(form);
  console.log(r);
  console.log(JSON.stringify(r));
}

const form = document.querySelector('form');

dumpValues(form)();

form.addEventListener('change',dumpValues(form));
<form action="/my-handling-form-page" method="post">
  <div>
    <label for="name">Name:</label>
    <input type="text" id="name" name="user_name" value="John">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label for="mail">E-mail:</label>
    <input type="email" id="mail" name="user_mail" value="john@jonhson.j">
  </div>
  <div>
    <label for="interests">Interest:</label>
    <select required=""  id="interests" name="interests">
      <option value="" selected="selected">- None -</option>
      <option value="drums">Drums</option>
      <option value="js">Javascript</option>
      <option value="sports">Sports</option>
      <option value="trekking">Trekking</option>
    </select>
  </div>
  <div>
    <label for="msg">Message:</label>
    <textarea id="msg" name="user_message">Hello My Friend</textarea>
  </div>
</form>
HTMLElement.prototype.serialize = function(){
    var obj = {};
    var elements = this.querySelectorAll( "input, select, textarea" );
    for( var i = 0; i < elements.length; ++i ) {
        var element = elements[i];
        var name = element.name;
        var value = element.value;

        if( name ) {
            obj[ name ] = value;
        }
    }
    return JSON.stringify( obj );
}

像这样使用:

var dataToSend = document.querySelector("form").serialize();

我希望我能有所帮助。

如果您要序列化事件的输入。这是我使用的纯JavaScript方法。

// serialize form
var data = {};
var inputs = [].slice.call(e.target.getElementsByTagName('input'));
inputs.forEach(input => {
  data[input.name] = input.value;
});

数据将是输入的JavaScript对象。

@SimonSteinberger代码的重构版本,使用较少的变量并利用forEach循环速度(比fors快一点

function serialize(form) {
    var result = [];
    if (typeof form === 'object' && form.nodeName === 'FORM')
        Array.prototype.slice.call(form.elements).forEach(function(control) {
            if (
                control.name && 
                !control.disabled && 
                ['file', 'reset', 'submit', 'button'].indexOf(control.type) === -1
            )
                if (control.type === 'select-multiple')
                    Array.prototype.slice.call(control.options).forEach(function(option) {
                        if (option.selected) 
                            result.push(encodeURIComponent(control.name) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(option.value));
                    });
                else if (
                    ['checkbox', 'radio'].indexOf(control.type) === -1 || 
                    control.checked
                ) result.push(encodeURIComponent(control.name) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(control.value));
        });
        return result.join('&').replace(/%20/g, '+');
}

我将TibTibs的答案重构为更清晰易读的内容。由于80个字符的宽度和一些注释,因此它更长一些。

此外,它会忽略空白字段名称和空白值。

// Serialize the specified form into a query string.
//
// Returns a blank string if +form+ is not actually a form element.
function $serialize(form, evt) {
  if(typeof(form) !== 'object' && form.nodeName !== "FORM")
    return '';

  var evt    = evt || window.event || { target: null };
  evt.target = evt.target || evt.srcElement || null;
  var field, query = '';

  // Transform a form field into a query-string-friendly
  // serialized form.
  //
  // [NOTE]: Replaces blank spaces from its standard '%20' representation
  //         into the non-standard (though widely used) '+'.
  var encode = function(field, name) {
    if (field.disabled) return '';

    return '&' + (name || field.name) + '=' +
           encodeURIComponent(field.value).replace(/%20/g,'+');
  }

  // Fields without names can't be serialized.
  var hasName = function(el) {
    return (el.name && el.name.length > 0)
  }

  // Ignore the usual suspects: file inputs, reset buttons,
  // buttons that did not submit the form and unchecked
  // radio buttons and checkboxes.
  var ignorableField = function(el, evt) {
    return ((el.type == 'file' || el.type == 'reset')
        || ((el.type == 'submit' || el.type == 'button') && evt.target != el)
        || ((el.type == 'checkbox' || el.type == 'radio') && !el.checked))
  }

  var parseMultiSelect = function(field) {
    var q = '';

    for (var j=field.options.length-1; j>=0; j--) {
      if (field.options[j].selected) {
        q += encode(field.options[j], field.name);
      }
    }

    return q;
  };

  for(i = form.elements.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
    field = form.elements[i];

    if (!hasName(field) || field.value == '' || ignorableField(field, evt))
      continue;

    query += (field.type == 'select-multiple') ? parseMultiSelect(field)
                                               : encode(field);
  }

  return (query.length == 0) ? '' : query.substr(1);
}

这可以通过以下非常简单的功能来完成

function serialize(form) {
        let requestArray = [];
        form.querySelectorAll('[name]').forEach((elem) => {
            requestArray.push(elem.name + '=' + elem.value);
        });
        if(requestArray.length > 0)
            return requestArray.join('&');
        else
            return false;
    }

 serialized = serialize(document.querySelector('form'))
  console.log(serialized);
<form>

  <input type='text' name='fname' value='Johne'/>
  <input type='text' name='lname' value='Doe'/>
  <input type='text' name='contact[]' value='99999999'/>
  <input type='text' name='contact[]' value='34423434345'/>

</form>
  // supports IE8 and IE9 
  function serialize(form) {
    var inputs = form.elements;
    var array = [];
    for(i=0; i < inputs.length; i++) {
      var inputNameValue = inputs[i].name + '=' + inputs[i].value;
      array.push(inputNameValue);
    }
    return array.join('&');
  }
 //using the serialize function written above
 var form = document.getElementById("form");//get the id of your form. i am assuming the id to be named form.
 var form_data = serialize(form);
 var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
 xhr.send(form_data);

 //does not work with IE8 AND IE9
 var form = document.querySelector('form');
 var data = new FormData(form);
 var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
 xhr.send(data);

我已经从@moison答案中获取了formData的entry()方法,并从MDN中得知:

FormData.entries()方法返回一个迭代器,该迭代器允许遍历此对象中包含的所有键/值对。每对的密钥是一个USVString对象。值是USVString或Blob。

但是唯一的问题是移动浏览器(不支持android和safari)以及IE和Safari桌面

但基本上这是我的方法:

let theForm =  document.getElementById("contact"); 

theForm.onsubmit = function(event) {
    event.preventDefault();

    let rawData = new FormData(theForm);
    let data = {};

   for(let pair of rawData.entries()) {
     data[pair[0]] = pair[1]; 
    }
    let contactData = JSON.stringify(data);
    console.warn(contactData);
    //here you can send a post request with content-type :'application.json'

};

可以在这里找到代码

使用JavaScript reduce函数应该对所有浏览器都有效,包括IE9>:

Array.prototype.slice.call(form.elements) // convert form elements to array
    .reduce(function(acc,cur){   // reduce 
        var o = {type : cur.type, name : cur.name, value : cur.value}; // get needed keys
        if(['checkbox','radio'].indexOf(cur.type) !==-1){
            o.checked = cur.checked;
        } else if(cur.type === 'select-multiple'){
            o.value=[];
            for(i=0;i<cur.length;i++){
                o.value.push({
                    value : cur.options[i].value,
                    selected : cur.options[i].selected
                });
            }
        }
        acc.push(o);
        return acc;
 },[]);

现场示例如下。

改善大卫柠檬的答案。

这会将表单数据转换为JSON,并允许您从数据对象设置表单。

const main = () => {
  const form = document.forms['info'];
  const data = {
    "user_name"       : "John",
    "user_email"      : "john@jonhson.com",
    "user_created"    : "2020-03-24",
    "user_age"        : 42,
    "user_subscribed" : true,
    "user_interests"  : "sports",
    "user_message"    : "Hello My Friend"
  };

  populateForm(form, data);
  updateJsonView(form);
  form.addEventListener('change', (e) => updateJsonView(form));
}

const getFieldValue = (field, opts) => {
  let type = field.getAttribute('type');
  if (type) {
    switch (type) {
      case 'checkbox':
        return field.checked;
      case 'number':
        return field.value.includes('.')
          ? parseFloat(field.value)
          : parseInt(field.value, 10);
    }
  }
  if (opts && opts[field.name] && opts[field.name].type) {
    switch (opts[field.name].type) {
      case 'int':
        return parseInt(field.value, 10);
      case 'float':
        return parseFloat(field.value);
    }
  }
  return field.value;
}

const setFieldValue = (field, value) => {
  let type = field.getAttribute('type');
  if (type) {
    switch (type) {
      case 'checkbox':
        field.checked = value;
        break;
      default:
        field.value = value;
        break;
    }
  } else {
    field.value = value;
  }
}

const extractFormData = (form, opts) => {
  return Array.from(form.elements).reduce((data, element) => {
    return Object.assign(data, { [element.name] : getFieldValue(element, opts) });
  }, {});
};

const populateForm = (form, data) => {
  return Array.from(form.elements).forEach((element) => {
    setFieldValue(element, data[element.name]);
  });
};

const updateJsonView = (form) => {
  let fieldOptions = {};
  let formData = extractFormData(form, fieldOptions);
  let serializedData = JSON.stringify(formData, null, 2);
  document.querySelector('.json-view').textContent = serializedData;
};

main();
.form-field {
  margin-bottom: 0.5em;
}

.form-field label {
  display: inline-block;
  font-weight: bold;
  width: 7em;
  vertical-align: top;
}

.json-view {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0.667em;
  right: 0.667em;
  border: thin solid grey;
  padding: 0.5em;
  white-space: pre;
  font-family: monospace;
  overflow: scroll-y;
  max-height: 100%;
}
<form name="info" action="/my-handling-form-page" method="post">
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="name">Name:</label>
    <input type="text" id="name" name="user_name">
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="mail">E-mail:</label>
    <input type="email" id="mail" name="user_email">
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="created">Date of Birth:</label>
    <input type="date" id="created" name="user_created">
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="age">Age:</label>
    <input type="number" id="age" name="user_age">
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="subscribe">Subscribe:</label>
    <input type="checkbox" id="subscribe" name="user_subscribed">
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="interests">Interest:</label>
    <select required=""  id="interests" name="user_interests">
      <option value="" selected="selected">- None -</option>
      <option value="drums">Drums</option>
      <option value="js">Javascript</option>
      <option value="sports">Sports</option>
      <option value="trekking">Trekking</option>
    </select>
  </div>
  <div class="form-field">
    <label for="msg">Message:</label>
    <textarea id="msg" name="user_message"></textarea>
  </div>
</form>
<div class="json-view"></div>

这是纯JavaScript方法:

var form = document.querySelector('form');
var data = new FormData(form);

  var xhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
  xhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
    if (this.readyState == 4 && this.status == 200) {
       console.log(this.responseText);
    }
  };
  xhttp.open("POST", "<YOUR-URL>", true);
  xhttp.send(data);
}

我希望这会起作用

var serializeForm = (formElement) => {
  const formData = {};
  const inputs = formElement.elements;

  for (let i = 0; i < inputs.length; i++) {
    if(inputs[i].name!=="")
        formData[inputs[i].name] = inputs[i].value;
  }
  return formData;
}
document.serializeForm = function (selector) {
     var dictionary = {};
     var form = document.querySelector(selector);
     var formdata = new FormData(form);
     var done = false;
     var iterator = formdata.entries();
     do {
         var prop = iterator.next();
         if (prop.done && !prop.value) {
             done = true;
         }
         else {
             dictionary[prop.value[0]] = prop.value[1];
         }

     } while (!done);
     return dictionary;
}

出于调试目的,这可能会帮助您:

function print_form_data(form) {
    const form_data = new FormData(form);

    for (const item of form_data.entries()) {
        console.log(item);
    }

    return false;
}

我可能疯了,但是我发现这些答案严重膨胀。这是我的解决方案

function serialiseForm(form) {
  var input = form.getElementsByTagName("input");
  var formData = {};
  for (var i = 0; i < input.length; i++) {
    formData[input[i].name] = input[i].value;
  }
  return formData = JSON.stringify(formData);
}
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