纯JavaScript发送不带表单的POST数据

2020/11/13 02:22 · javascript ·  · 0评论

有没有一种方法可以使用POST方法发送数据,而无需表单,也无需仅使用纯JavaScript(而不是jQuery $.post()刷新页面也许httprequest还是别的(现在找不到)?

您可以发送它并将数据插入正文:

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open("POST", yourUrl, true);
xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json');
xhr.send(JSON.stringify({
    value: value
}));

顺便说一下,获取请求:

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
// we defined the xhr

xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {
    if (this.readyState != 4) return;

    if (this.status == 200) {
        var data = JSON.parse(this.responseText);

        // we get the returned data
    }

    // end of state change: it can be after some time (async)
};

xhr.open('GET', yourUrl, true);
xhr.send();

[2017年编写时颇为新颖] Fetch API旨在简化GET请求,但也可以进行POST。

let data = {element: "barium"};

fetch("/post/data/here", {
  method: "POST", 
  body: JSON.stringify(data)
}).then(res => {
  console.log("Request complete! response:", res);
});

如果您像我一样懒惰(或者只喜欢快捷方式/助手):

window.post = function(url, data) {
  return fetch(url, {method: "POST", body: JSON.stringify(data)});
}

// ...

post("post/data/here", {element: "osmium"});

您可以XMLHttpRequest如下使用该对象:

xhr.open("POST", url, true);
xhr.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8");
xhr.send(someStuff);

该代码将发布someStuffurl只要确保在创建XMLHttpRequest对象时,它就可以跨浏览器兼容。那里有无数个如何做到这一点的例子。

此外,REST风格让你的数据备份POST请求。

JS(输入static / hello.html以通过Python投放):

<html><head><meta charset="utf-8"/></head><body>
Hello.

<script>

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open("POST", "/postman", true);
xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json');
xhr.send(JSON.stringify({
    value: 'value'
}));
xhr.onload = function() {
  console.log("HELLO")
  console.log(this.responseText);
  var data = JSON.parse(this.responseText);
  console.log(data);
}

</script></body></html>

Python服务器(用于测试):

import time, threading, socket, SocketServer, BaseHTTPServer
import os, traceback, sys, json


log_lock           = threading.Lock()
log_next_thread_id = 0

# Local log functiondef


def Log(module, msg):
    with log_lock:
        thread = threading.current_thread().__name__
        msg    = "%s %s: %s" % (module, thread, msg)
        sys.stderr.write(msg + '\n')

def Log_Traceback():
    t   = traceback.format_exc().strip('\n').split('\n')
    if ', in ' in t[-3]:
        t[-3] = t[-3].replace(', in','\n***\n***  In') + '(...):'
        t[-2] += '\n***'
    err = '\n***  '.join(t[-3:]).replace('"','').replace(' File ', '')
    err = err.replace(', line',':')
    Log("Traceback", '\n'.join(t[:-3]) + '\n\n\n***\n*** ' + err + '\n***\n\n')

    os._exit(4)

def Set_Thread_Label(s):
    global log_next_thread_id
    with log_lock:
        threading.current_thread().__name__ = "%d%s" \
            % (log_next_thread_id, s)
        log_next_thread_id += 1


class Handler(BaseHTTPServer.BaseHTTPRequestHandler):

    def do_GET(self):
        Set_Thread_Label(self.path + "[get]")
        try:
            Log("HTTP", "PATH='%s'" % self.path)
            with open('static' + self.path) as f:
                data = f.read()
            Log("Static", "DATA='%s'" % data)
            self.send_response(200)
            self.send_header("Content-type", "text/html")
            self.end_headers()
            self.wfile.write(data)
        except:
            Log_Traceback()

    def do_POST(self):
        Set_Thread_Label(self.path + "[post]")
        try:
            length = int(self.headers.getheader('content-length'))
            req   = self.rfile.read(length)
            Log("HTTP", "PATH='%s'" % self.path)
            Log("URL", "request data = %s" % req)
            req = json.loads(req)
            response = {'req': req}
            response = json.dumps(response)
            Log("URL", "response data = %s" % response)
            self.send_response(200)
            self.send_header("Content-type", "application/json")
            self.send_header("content-length", str(len(response)))
            self.end_headers()
            self.wfile.write(response)
        except:
            Log_Traceback()


# Create ONE socket.
addr = ('', 8000)
sock = socket.socket (socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
sock.bind(addr)
sock.listen(5)

# Launch 100 listener threads.
class Thread(threading.Thread):
    def __init__(self, i):
        threading.Thread.__init__(self)
        self.i = i
        self.daemon = True
        self.start()
    def run(self):
        httpd = BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer(addr, Handler, False)

        # Prevent the HTTP server from re-binding every handler.
        # https://stackoverflow.com/questions/46210672/
        httpd.socket = sock
        httpd.server_bind = self.server_close = lambda self: None

        httpd.serve_forever()
[Thread(i) for i in range(10)]
time.sleep(9e9)

控制台日志(chrome):

HELLO
hello.html:14 {"req": {"value": "value"}}
hello.html:16 
{req: {…}}
req
:
{value: "value"}
__proto__
:
Object

控制台日志(Firefox):

GET 
http://XXXXX:8000/hello.html [HTTP/1.0 200 OK 0ms]
POST 
XHR 
http://XXXXX:8000/postman [HTTP/1.0 200 OK 0ms]
HELLO hello.html:13:3
{"req": {"value": "value"}} hello.html:14:3
Object { req: Object }

控制台日志(边缘):

HTML1300: Navigation occurred.
hello.html
HTML1527: DOCTYPE expected. Consider adding a valid HTML5 doctype: "<!DOCTYPE html>".
hello.html (1,1)
Current window: XXXXX/hello.html
HELLO
hello.html (13,3)
{"req": {"value": "value"}}
hello.html (14,3)
[object Object]
hello.html (16,3)
   {
      [functions]: ,
      __proto__: { },
      req: {
         [functions]: ,
         __proto__: { },
         value: "value"
      }
   }

Python日志:

HTTP 8/postman[post]: PATH='/postman'
URL 8/postman[post]: request data = {"value":"value"}
URL 8/postman[post]: response data = {"req": {"value": "value"}}

您可以使用XMLHttpRequest,获取API,...


如果您想使用XMLHttpRequest,则可以执行以下操作

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open("POST", url, true);
xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json');
xhr.send(JSON.stringify({
    name: "Deska",
    email: "deska@gmail.com",
    phone: "342234553"
 }));
xhr.onload = function() {
    var data = JSON.parse(this.responseText);
    console.log(data);
};

或者,如果您想使用提取API

fetch(url, {
    method:"POST",
    body: JSON.stringify({
        name: "Deska",
        email: "deska@gmail.com",
        phone: "342234553"
        })
    })
    .then(result => {
        // do something with the result
        console.log("Completed with result:", result);
    });

有一种简单的方法可以包装数据并将其发送到服务器,就像使用来发送HTML表单一样POST您可以使用FormDataobject进行以下操作:

data = new FormData()
data.set('Foo',1)
data.set('Bar','boo')

let request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open("POST", 'some_url/', true);
request.send(data)

现在,您可以像处理常规HTML表单一样,在服务器端处理数据。

附加信息

建议您在发送FormData时不要设置Content-Type标头,因为浏览器会处理。

navigator.sendBeacon()

如果您只需要POST数据并且不需要服务器响应,则最短的解决方案是使用navigator.sendBeacon()

const data = JSON.stringify({
  example_1: 123,
  example_2: 'Hello, world!',
});

navigator.sendBeacon('example.php', data);

您是否知道JavaScript具有创建表单并提交表单的内置方法和库?

我在这里看到很多回复,都要求使用3rd party库,我认为这太过分了。

我会在纯Javascript中执行以下操作:

<script>
function launchMyForm()
{
   var myForm = document.createElement("FORM");
   myForm.setAttribute("id","TestForm");
   document.body.appendChild(myForm);

// this will create a new FORM which is mapped to the Java Object of myForm, with an id of TestForm. Equivalent to: <form id="TestForm"></form>

   var myInput = document.createElement("INPUT");
   myInput.setAttribute("id","MyInput");
   myInput.setAttribute("type","text");
   myInput.setAttribute("value","Heider");
   document.getElementById("TestForm").appendChild(myInput);

// This will create an INPUT equivalent to: <INPUT id="MyInput" type="text" value="Heider" /> and then assign it to be inside the TestForm tags. 
}
</script>

这样(A),您不需要依靠第三方来完成这项工作。(B)全部内置于所有浏览器中,(C)速度更快,(D)有效,请随时尝试。

我希望这有帮助。H

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