带有PHP的jQuery Ajax POST示例

2020/09/22 03:21 · javascript ·  · 0评论

我正在尝试将数据从表单发送到数据库。这是我使用的表格:

<form name="foo" action="form.php" method="POST" id="foo">
    <label for="bar">A bar</label>
    <input id="bar" name="bar" type="text" value="" />
    <input type="submit" value="Send" />
</form>

典型的方法是提交表单,但这会导致浏览器重定向。使用jQuery和Ajax,是否可以捕获表单的所有数据并将其提交到PHP脚本(例如form.php)?

的基本用法.ajax如下所示:

HTML:

<form id="foo">
    <label for="bar">A bar</label>
    <input id="bar" name="bar" type="text" value="" />

    <input type="submit" value="Send" />
</form>

jQuery的:

// Variable to hold request
var request;

// Bind to the submit event of our form
$("#foo").submit(function(event){

    // Prevent default posting of form - put here to work in case of errors
    event.preventDefault();

    // Abort any pending request
    if (request) {
        request.abort();
    }
    // setup some local variables
    var $form = $(this);

    // Let's select and cache all the fields
    var $inputs = $form.find("input, select, button, textarea");

    // Serialize the data in the form
    var serializedData = $form.serialize();

    // Let's disable the inputs for the duration of the Ajax request.
    // Note: we disable elements AFTER the form data has been serialized.
    // Disabled form elements will not be serialized.
    $inputs.prop("disabled", true);

    // Fire off the request to /form.php
    request = $.ajax({
        url: "/form.php",
        type: "post",
        data: serializedData
    });

    // Callback handler that will be called on success
    request.done(function (response, textStatus, jqXHR){
        // Log a message to the console
        console.log("Hooray, it worked!");
    });

    // Callback handler that will be called on failure
    request.fail(function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown){
        // Log the error to the console
        console.error(
            "The following error occurred: "+
            textStatus, errorThrown
        );
    });

    // Callback handler that will be called regardless
    // if the request failed or succeeded
    request.always(function () {
        // Reenable the inputs
        $inputs.prop("disabled", false);
    });

});

注:由于jQuery的1.8 .success().error().complete()支持已被弃用.done().fail()并且.always()

注意:请记住,上面的代码段必须在DOM准备就绪后完成,因此您应该将其放在$(document).ready()处理程序中(或使用$()简写形式)。

提示:您可以像这样链接回调处理程序:$.ajax().done().fail().always();

PHP(即form.php):

// You can access the values posted by jQuery.ajax
// through the global variable $_POST, like this:
$bar = isset($_POST['bar']) ? $_POST['bar'] : null;

注意:始终清理发布的数据,以防止注入和其他恶意代码。

您也可以使用简写.post代替.ajax上面的JavaScript代码:

$.post('/form.php', serializedData, function(response) {
    // Log the response to the console
    console.log("Response: "+response);
});

注意:上面的JavaScript代码适用于jQuery 1.8及更高版本,但它应适用于jQuery 1.5之前的版本。

要使用jQuery发出Ajax请求,您可以通过以下代码执行此操作。

HTML:

<form id="foo">
    <label for="bar">A bar</label>
    <input id="bar" name="bar" type="text" value="" />
    <input type="submit" value="Send" />
</form>

<!-- The result of the search will be rendered inside this div -->
<div id="result"></div>

JavaScript:

方法1

 /* Get from elements values */
 var values = $(this).serialize();

 $.ajax({
        url: "test.php",
        type: "post",
        data: values ,
        success: function (response) {

           // You will get response from your PHP page (what you echo or print)
        },
        error: function(jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) {
           console.log(textStatus, errorThrown);
        }
    });

方法2

/* Attach a submit handler to the form */
$("#foo").submit(function(event) {
    var ajaxRequest;

    /* Stop form from submitting normally */
    event.preventDefault();

    /* Clear result div*/
    $("#result").html('');

    /* Get from elements values */
    var values = $(this).serialize();

    /* Send the data using post and put the results in a div. */
    /* I am not aborting the previous request, because it's an
       asynchronous request, meaning once it's sent it's out
       there. But in case you want to abort it you can do it
       by abort(). jQuery Ajax methods return an XMLHttpRequest
       object, so you can just use abort(). */
       ajaxRequest= $.ajax({
            url: "test.php",
            type: "post",
            data: values
        });

    /*  Request can be aborted by ajaxRequest.abort() */

    ajaxRequest.done(function (response, textStatus, jqXHR){

         // Show successfully for submit message
         $("#result").html('Submitted successfully');
    });

    /* On failure of request this function will be called  */
    ajaxRequest.fail(function (){

        // Show error
        $("#result").html('There is error while submit');
    });

.success().error().complete()回调不赞成使用的jQuery 1.8要准备的代码为他们的最终消除,使用.done().fail().always()来代替。

MDN: abort()如果请求已经发送,则此方法将中止请求。

因此,我们已经成功发送了一个Ajax请求,现在是时候将数据获取到服务器了。

的PHP

在Ajax调用(type: "post"中发出POST请求时,我们现在可以使用$_REQUEST来获取数据$_POST

  $bar = $_POST['bar']

您也可以通过两种方法之一查看您在POST请求中得到的内容。顺便说一句,请确保$_POST已设置。否则,您将得到一个错误。

var_dump($_POST);
// Or
print_r($_POST);

并且您正在向数据库中插入一个值。在进行查询之前,请确保正确识别转义所有请求(无论您是进行GET还是POST)。最好是使用准备好的语句

而且,如果您想将任何数据返回到页面,则可以通过如下所示的方式回显该数据。

// 1. Without JSON
   echo "Hello, this is one"

// 2. By JSON. Then here is where I want to send a value back to the success of the Ajax below
echo json_encode(array('returned_val' => 'yoho'));

然后您可以像这样获得它:

 ajaxRequest.done(function (response){
    alert(response);
 });

有两种速记方法您可以使用以下代码。它执行相同的工作。

var ajaxRequest= $.post("test.php", values, function(data) {
  alert(data);
})
  .fail(function() {
    alert("error");
  })
  .always(function() {
    alert("finished");
});

我想分享一种使用PHP + Ajax进行发布的详细方法,以及因失败而抛出的错误。

首先,创建两个文件,例如form.phpprocess.php

我们将首先创建一个form,然后使用jQuery .ajax()方法提交其余的将在评论中说明。


form.php

<form method="post" name="postForm">
    <ul>
        <li>
            <label>Name</label>
            <input type="text" name="name" id="name" placeholder="Bruce Wayne">
            <span class="throw_error"></span>
            <span id="success"></span>
       </li>
   </ul>
   <input type="submit" value="Send" />
</form>

使用jQuery客户端验证来验证表单,并将数据传递给process.php

$(document).ready(function() {
    $('form').submit(function(event) { //Trigger on form submit
        $('#name + .throw_error').empty(); //Clear the messages first
        $('#success').empty();

        //Validate fields if required using jQuery

        var postForm = { //Fetch form data
            'name'     : $('input[name=name]').val() //Store name fields value
        };

        $.ajax({ //Process the form using $.ajax()
            type      : 'POST', //Method type
            url       : 'process.php', //Your form processing file URL
            data      : postForm, //Forms name
            dataType  : 'json',
            success   : function(data) {
                            if (!data.success) { //If fails
                                if (data.errors.name) { //Returned if any error from process.php
                                    $('.throw_error').fadeIn(1000).html(data.errors.name); //Throw relevant error
                                }
                            }
                            else {
                                    $('#success').fadeIn(1000).append('<p>' + data.posted + '</p>'); //If successful, than throw a success message
                                }
                            }
        });
        event.preventDefault(); //Prevent the default submit
    });
});

现在我们来看看 process.php

$errors = array(); //To store errors
$form_data = array(); //Pass back the data to `form.php`

/* Validate the form on the server side */
if (empty($_POST['name'])) { //Name cannot be empty
    $errors['name'] = 'Name cannot be blank';
}

if (!empty($errors)) { //If errors in validation
    $form_data['success'] = false;
    $form_data['errors']  = $errors;
}
else { //If not, process the form, and return true on success
    $form_data['success'] = true;
    $form_data['posted'] = 'Data Was Posted Successfully';
}

//Return the data back to form.php
echo json_encode($form_data);

可以从http://projects.decodingweb.com/simple_ajax_form.zip下载项目文件

您可以使用序列化。下面是一个例子。

$("#submit_btn").click(function(){
    $('.error_status').html();
        if($("form#frm_message_board").valid())
        {
            $.ajax({
                type: "POST",
                url: "<?php echo site_url('message_board/add');?>",
                data: $('#frm_message_board').serialize(),
                success: function(msg) {
                    var msg = $.parseJSON(msg);
                    if(msg.success=='yes')
                    {
                        return true;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        alert('Server error');
                        return false;
                    }
                }
            });
        }
        return false;
    });

HTML

    <form name="foo" action="form.php" method="POST" id="foo">
        <label for="bar">A bar</label>
        <input id="bar" class="inputs" name="bar" type="text" value="" />
        <input type="submit" value="Send" onclick="submitform(); return false;" />
    </form>

JavaScript

   function submitform()
   {
       var inputs = document.getElementsByClassName("inputs");
       var formdata = new FormData();
       for(var i=0; i<inputs.length; i++)
       {
           formdata.append(inputs[i].name, inputs[i].value);
       }
       var xmlhttp;
       if(window.XMLHttpRequest)
       {
           xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest;
       }
       else
       {
           xmlhttp = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
       }
       xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function()
       {
          if(xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200)
          {

          }
       }
       xmlhttp.open("POST", "insert.php");
       xmlhttp.send(formdata);
   }

我使用下面显示的方式。它提交文件之类的所有内容。

$(document).on("submit", "form", function(event)
{
    event.preventDefault();

    var url  = $(this).attr("action");
    $.ajax({
        url: url,
        type: 'POST',
        dataType: "JSON",
        data: new FormData(this),
        processData: false,
        contentType: false,
        success: function (data, status)
        {

        },
        error: function (xhr, desc, err)
        {
            console.log("error");
        }
    });
});

如果要使用jQuery Ajax发送数据,则不需要表单标签和提交按钮

例:

<script>
    $(document).ready(function () {
        $("#btnSend").click(function () {
            $.ajax({
                url: 'process.php',
                type: 'POST',
                data: {bar: $("#bar").val()},
                success: function (result) {
                    alert('success');
                }
            });
        });
    });
</script>

<label for="bar">A bar</label>
<input id="bar" name="bar" type="text" value="" />
<input id="btnSend" type="button" value="Send" />
<script src="http://code.jquery.com/jquery-1.7.2.js"></script>
<form method="post" id="form_content" action="Javascript:void(0);">
    <button id="desc" name="desc" value="desc" style="display:none;">desc</button>
    <button id="asc" name="asc"  value="asc">asc</button>
    <input type='hidden' id='check' value=''/>
</form>

<div id="demoajax"></div>

<script>
    numbers = '';
    $('#form_content button').click(function(){
        $('#form_content button').toggle();
        numbers = this.id;
        function_two(numbers);
    });

    function function_two(numbers){
        if (numbers === '')
        {
            $('#check').val("asc");
        }
        else
        {
            $('#check').val(numbers);
        }
        //alert(sort_var);

        $.ajax({
            url: 'test.php',
            type: 'POST',
            data: $('#form_content').serialize(),
            success: function(data){
                $('#demoajax').show();
                $('#demoajax').html(data);
                }
        });

        return false;
    }
    $(document).ready(function_two());
</script>

在提交之前和提交成功之后处理Ajax错误和加载程序会显示一个带有示例的警报启动框:

var formData = formData;

$.ajax({
    type: "POST",
    url: url,
    async: false,
    data: formData, // Only input
    processData: false,
    contentType: false,
    xhr: function ()
    {
        $("#load_consulting").show();
        var xhr = new window.XMLHttpRequest();

        // Upload progress
        xhr.upload.addEventListener("progress", function (evt) {
            if (evt.lengthComputable) {
                var percentComplete = (evt.loaded / evt.total) * 100;
                $('#addLoad .progress-bar').css('width', percentComplete + '%');
            }
        }, false);

        // Download progress
        xhr.addEventListener("progress", function (evt) {
            if (evt.lengthComputable) {
                var percentComplete = evt.loaded / evt.total;
            }
        }, false);
        return xhr;
    },
    beforeSend: function (xhr) {
        qyuraLoader.startLoader();
    },
    success: function (response, textStatus, jqXHR) {
        qyuraLoader.stopLoader();
        try {
            $("#load_consulting").hide();

            var data = $.parseJSON(response);
            if (data.status == 0)
            {
                if (data.isAlive)
                {
                    $('#addLoad .progress-bar').css('width', '00%');
                    console.log(data.errors);
                    $.each(data.errors, function (index, value) {
                        if (typeof data.custom == 'undefined') {
                            $('#err_' + index).html(value);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            $('#err_' + index).addClass('error');

                            if (index == 'TopError')
                            {
                                $('#er_' + index).html(value);
                            }
                            else {
                                $('#er_TopError').append('<p>' + value + '</p>');
                            }
                        }
                    });
                    if (data.errors.TopError) {
                        $('#er_TopError').show();
                        $('#er_TopError').html(data.errors.TopError);
                        setTimeout(function () {
                            $('#er_TopError').hide(5000);
                            $('#er_TopError').html('');
                        }, 5000);
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    $('#headLogin').html(data.loginMod);
                }
            } else {
                //document.getElementById("setData").reset();
                $('#myModal').modal('hide');
                $('#successTop').show();
                $('#successTop').html(data.msg);
                if (data.msg != '' && data.msg != "undefined") {

                    bootbox.alert({closeButton: false, message: data.msg, callback: function () {
                            if (data.url) {
                                window.location.href = '<?php echo site_url() ?>' + '/' + data.url;
                            } else {
                                location.reload(true);
                            }
                        }});
                } else {
                    bootbox.alert({closeButton: false, message: "Success", callback: function () {
                        if (data.url) {
                            window.location.href = '<?php echo site_url() ?>' + '/' + data.url;
                        } else {
                            location.reload(true);
                        }
                    }});
                }

            }
        }
        catch (e) {
            if (e) {
                $('#er_TopError').show();
                $('#er_TopError').html(e);
                setTimeout(function () {
                    $('#er_TopError').hide(5000);
                    $('#er_TopError').html('');
                }, 5000);
            }
        }
    }
});

在您的php文件中输入:

$content_raw = file_get_contents("php://input"); // THIS IS WHAT YOU NEED
$decoded_data = json_decode($content_raw, true); // THIS IS WHAT YOU NEED
$bar = $decoded_data['bar']; // THIS IS WHAT YOU NEED
$time = $decoded_data['time'];
$hash = $decoded_data['hash'];
echo "You have sent a POST request containing the bar variable with the value $bar";

并在您的js文件中发送带有数据对象的ajax

var data = { 
    bar : 'bar value',
    time: calculatedTimeStamp,
    hash: calculatedHash,
    uid: userID,
    sid: sessionID,
    iid: itemID
};

$.ajax({
    method: 'POST',
    crossDomain: true,
    dataType: 'json',
    crossOrigin: true,
    async: true,
    contentType: 'application/json',
    data: data,
    headers: {
        'Access-Control-Allow-Methods': '*',
        "Access-Control-Allow-Credentials": true,
        "Access-Control-Allow-Headers" : "Access-Control-Allow-Headers, Origin, X-Requested-With, Content-Type, Accept, Authorization",
        "Access-Control-Allow-Origin": "*",
        "Control-Allow-Origin": "*",
        "cache-control": "no-cache",
        'Content-Type': 'application/json'
    },
    url: 'https://yoururl.com/somephpfile.php',
    success: function(response){
        console.log("Respond was: ", response);
    },
    error: function (request, status, error) {
        console.log("There was an error: ", request.responseText);
    }
  })

或将其与表单提交保持一致。仅当您要发送修改后的请求时,才需要此请求,该请求包含计算出的其他内容,而不仅是某些表单数据(由客户输入),还可以发送。例如,哈希,时间戳,用户标识,会话标识等。

我使用这种简单的单行代码多年没有问题(它需要jQuery):

<script src="http://malsup.github.com/jquery.form.js"></script> 
<script type="text/javascript">
    function ap(x,y) {$("#" + y).load(x);};
    function af(x,y) {$("#" + x ).ajaxSubmit({target: '#' + y});return false;};
</script>

此处的ap()表示Ajax页面,而af()表示Ajax形式。在表单中,只需调用af()函数即可将表单发布到URL并将响应加载到所需的HTML元素上。

<form id="form_id">
    ...
    <input type="button" onclick="af('form_id','load_response_id')"/>
</form>
<div id="load_response_id">this is where response will be loaded</div>

请检查一下。这是完整的Ajax请求代码。

$('#foo').submit(function(event) {
    // Get the form data
    // There are many ways to get this data using jQuery (you
    // can use the class or id also)
    var formData = $('#foo').serialize();
    var url = 'URL of the request';

    // Process the form.
    $.ajax({
        type        : 'POST',   // Define the type of HTTP verb we want to use
        url         : 'url/',   // The URL where we want to POST
        data        : formData, // Our data object
        dataType    : 'json',   // What type of data do we expect back.
        beforeSend : function() {

            // This will run before sending an Ajax request.
            // Do whatever activity you want, like show loaded.
        },
        success:function(response){
            var obj = eval(response);
            if(obj)
            {
                if(obj.error==0){
                    alert('success');
                }
                else{
                    alert('error');
                }
            }
        },
        complete : function() {
            // This will run after sending an Ajax complete
        },
        error:function (xhr, ajaxOptions, thrownError){
            alert('error occured');
            // If any error occurs in request
        }
    });

    // Stop the form from submitting the normal way
    // and refreshing the page
    event.preventDefault();
});

这是一篇非常好的文章,其中包含您需要了解的有关jQuery表单提交的所有信息。

文章摘要:

简单的HTML表单提交

HTML:

<form action="path/to/server/script" method="post" id="my_form">
    <label>Name</label>
    <input type="text" name="name" />
    <label>Email</label>
    <input type="email" name="email" />
    <label>Website</label>
    <input type="url" name="website" />
    <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit Form" />
    <div id="server-results"><!-- For server results --></div>
</form>

JavaScript:

$("#my_form").submit(function(event){
    event.preventDefault(); // Prevent default action
    var post_url = $(this).attr("action"); // Get the form action URL
    var request_method = $(this).attr("method"); // Get form GET/POST method
    var form_data = $(this).serialize(); // Encode form elements for submission

    $.ajax({
        url : post_url,
        type: request_method,
        data : form_data
    }).done(function(response){ //
        $("#server-results").html(response);
    });
});

HTML分段/表单数据表单提交

要将文件上传到服务器,我们可以使用XMLHttpRequest2可用的FormData接口,该接口构造一个FormData对象,并可以使用jQuery Ajax轻松将其发送到服务器。

HTML:

<form action="path/to/server/script" method="post" id="my_form">
    <label>Name</label>
    <input type="text" name="name" />
    <label>Email</label>
    <input type="email" name="email" />
    <label>Website</label>
    <input type="url" name="website" />
    <input type="file" name="my_file[]" /> <!-- File Field Added -->
    <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit Form" />
    <div id="server-results"><!-- For server results --></div>
</form>

JavaScript:

$("#my_form").submit(function(event){
    event.preventDefault(); // Prevent default action
    var post_url = $(this).attr("action"); // Get form action URL
    var request_method = $(this).attr("method"); // Get form GET/POST method
    var form_data = new FormData(this); // Creates new FormData object
    $.ajax({
        url : post_url,
        type: request_method,
        data : form_data,
        contentType: false,
        cache: false,
        processData: false
    }).done(function(response){ //
        $("#server-results").html(response);
    });
});

我希望这有帮助。

自从引入Fetch API以来,实际上再也没有理由再使用jQuery Ajax或XMLHttpRequests了。要将表单数据发布到原始JavaScript中的PHP脚本中,您可以执行以下操作:

function postData() {
    const form = document.getElementById('form');
    const data = new FormData();
    data.append('name', form.name.value);

    fetch('../php/contact.php', {method: 'POST', body: data}).then(response => {
        if (!response.ok){
            throw new Error('Network response was not ok.');
        }
    }).catch(err => console.log(err));
}
<form id="form" action="javascript:postData()">
    <input id="name" name="name" placeholder="Name" type="text" required>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form>

这是一个PHP脚本的非常基本的示例,该脚本获取数据并发送电子邮件:

<?php
    header('Content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8');

    if (isset($_POST['name'])) {
        $name = $_POST['name'];
    }

    $to = "test@example.com";
    $subject = "New name submitted";
    $body = "You received the following name: $name";

    mail($to, $subject, $body);

纯JS

在纯JS中,它将更加简单

foo.onsubmit = e=> {
  e.preventDefault();
  fetch(foo.action,{method:'post', body: new FormData(foo)});
}

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