Get element inside element by class and ID – JavaScript

2020/11/17 11:42 · javascript ·  · 0评论

Alright, I've dabbled in JavaScript before, but the most useful thing I've written is a CSS style-switcher. So I'm somewhat new to this. Let's say I have HTML code like this:

<div id="foo">
    <div class="bar">
        Hello world!
    </div>
</div>

How would I change Hello world! to Goodbye world!?

I know how document.getElementsByClassName and document.getElementById work, but I would like to get more specific. Sorry if this has been asked before.

Well, first you need to select the elements with a function like getElementById.

var targetDiv = document.getElementById("foo").getElementsByClassName("bar")[0];

getElementById only returns one node, but getElementsByClassName returns a node list. Since there is only one element with that class name (as far as I can tell), you can just get the first one (that's what the [0] is for—it's just like an array).

Then, you can change the html with .textContent.

targetDiv.textContent = "Goodbye world!";

var targetDiv = document.getElementById("foo").getElementsByClassName("bar")[0];
targetDiv.textContent = "Goodbye world!";
<div id="foo">
    <div class="bar">
        Hello world!
    </div>
</div>

You can do it like this:

var list = document.getElementById("foo").getElementsByClassName("bar");
if (list && list.length > 0) {
    list[0].innerHTML = "Goodbye world!";
}

or, if you want to do it with with less error checking and more brevity, it can be done in one line like this:

document.getElementById("foo").getElementsByClassName("bar")[0].innerHTML = "Goodbye world!";

In explanation:

  1. You get the element with id="foo".
  2. You then find the objects that are contained within that object that have class="bar".
  3. That returns an array-like nodeList, so you reference the first item in that nodeList
  4. You can then set the innerHTML of that item to change its contents.

Caveats: some older browsers don't support getElementsByClassName (e.g. older versions of IE). That function can be shimmed into place if missing.


This is where I recommend using a library that has built-in CSS3 selector support rather than worrying about browser compatibility yourself (let someone else do all the work). If you want just a library to do that, then Sizzle will work great. In Sizzle, this would be be done like this:

Sizzle("#foo .bar")[0].innerHTML = "Goodbye world!";

jQuery has the Sizzle library built-in and in jQuery, this would be:

$("#foo .bar").html("Goodbye world!");

If this needs to work in IE 7 or lower you need to remember that getElementsByClassName does not exist in all browsers. Because of this you can create your own getElementsByClassName or you can try this.

var fooDiv = document.getElementById("foo");

for (var i = 0, childNode; i <= fooDiv.childNodes.length; i ++) {
    childNode = fooDiv.childNodes[i];
    if (/bar/.test(childNode.className)) {
        childNode.innerHTML = "Goodbye world!";
    }
}

Recursive function :

function getElementInsideElement(baseElement, wantedElementID) {
    var elementToReturn;
    for (var i = 0; i < baseElement.childNodes.length; i++) {
        elementToReturn = baseElement.childNodes[i];
        if (elementToReturn.id == wantedElementID) {
            return elementToReturn;
        } else {
            return getElementInsideElement(elementToReturn, wantedElementID);
        }
    }
}

THe easiest way to do so is:

function findChild(idOfElement, idOfChild){
  let element = document.getElementById(idOfElement);
  return element.querySelector('[id=' + idOfChild + ']');
}

or better readable:

findChild = (idOfElement, idOfChild) => {
    let element = document.getElementById(idOfElement);
    return element.querySelector(`[id=${idOfChild}]`);
}

You should not used document.getElementByID because its work only for client side controls which ids are fixed . You should use jquery instead like below example.

<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.3/jquery.min.js"></script>                                                                                                             
<div id="foo">
   <div class="bar"> 
          Hello world!
     </div>
</div>

use this :

$("[id^='foo']").find("[class^='bar']")

// do not forget to add script tags as above

if you want any remove edit any operation then just add "." behind and do the operations

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