如何在JavaScript中将文件转换为base64?

2020/10/18 04:41 · javascript ·  · 0评论

现在,我通过此行获取File对象:

file = document.querySelector('#files > input[type="file"]').files[0]

我需要在base 64中通过json发送此文件。如何将其转换为base64字符串?

现代ES6方式(异步/等待)

const toBase64 = file => new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const reader = new FileReader();
    reader.readAsDataURL(file);
    reader.onload = () => resolve(reader.result);
    reader.onerror = error => reject(error);
});

async function Main() {
   const file = document.querySelector('#myfile').files[0];
   console.log(await toBase64(file));
}

Main();

UPD:

如果您想发现错误

async function Main() {
   const file = document.querySelector('#myfile').files[0];
   const result = await toBase64(file).catch(e => Error(e));
   if(result instanceof Error) {
      console.log('Error: ', result.message);
      return;
   }
   //...
}

使用FileReader 尝试解决方案

function getBase64(file) {
   var reader = new FileReader();
   reader.readAsDataURL(file);
   reader.onload = function () {
     console.log(reader.result);
   };
   reader.onerror = function (error) {
     console.log('Error: ', error);
   };
}

var file = document.querySelector('#files > input[type="file"]').files[0];
getBase64(file); // prints the base64 string

请注意,这.files[0]是一种File类型,是的子类Blob因此可以与结合使用FileReader

请参阅完整的工作
示例

如果您追求基于承诺的解决方案,那么这是@Dmitri的适用于此的代码:

function getBase64(file) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const reader = new FileReader();
    reader.readAsDataURL(file);
    reader.onload = () => resolve(reader.result);
    reader.onerror = error => reject(error);
  });
}

var file = document.querySelector('#files > input[type="file"]').files[0];
getBase64(file).then(
  data => console.log(data)
);

在Dmitri Pavlutin和joshua.paling答案的基础上,这是扩展版本,可提取base64内容(删除开头的元数据)并确保填充正确完成

function getBase64(file) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const reader = new FileReader();
    reader.readAsDataURL(file);
    reader.onload = () => {
      let encoded = reader.result.toString().replace(/^data:(.*,)?/, '');
      if ((encoded.length % 4) > 0) {
        encoded += '='.repeat(4 - (encoded.length % 4));
      }
      resolve(encoded);
    };
    reader.onerror = error => reject(error);
  });
}

JavaScript btoa()函数可用于将数据转换为base64编码的字符串

这是我编写的几个函数,用于获取可以轻松传递的json格式的文件:

    //takes an array of JavaScript File objects
    function getFiles(files) {
        return Promise.all(files.map(file => getFile(file)));
    }

    //take a single JavaScript File object
    function getFile(file) {
        var reader = new FileReader();
        return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
            reader.onerror = () => { reader.abort(); reject(new Error("Error parsing file"));}
            reader.onload = function () {

                //This will result in an array that will be recognized by C#.NET WebApi as a byte[]
                let bytes = Array.from(new Uint8Array(this.result));

                //if you want the base64encoded file you would use the below line:
                let base64StringFile = btoa(bytes.map((item) => String.fromCharCode(item)).join(""));

                //Resolve the promise with your custom file structure
                resolve({ 
                    bytes: bytes,
                    base64StringFile: base64StringFile,
                    fileName: file.name, 
                    fileType: file.type
                });
            }
            reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);
        });
    }

    //using the functions with your file:

    file = document.querySelector('#files > input[type="file"]').files[0]
    getFile(file).then((customJsonFile) => {
         //customJsonFile is your newly constructed file.
         console.log(customJsonFile);
    });

    //if you are in an environment where async/await is supported

    files = document.querySelector('#files > input[type="file"]').files
    let customJsonFiles = await getFiles(files);
    //customJsonFiles is an array of your custom files
    console.log(customJsonFiles);
onInputChange(evt) {
    var tgt = evt.target || window.event.srcElement,
    files = tgt.files;
    if (FileReader && files && files.length) {
        var fr = new FileReader();
        fr.onload = function () {
            var base64 = fr.result;
            debugger;
        }
        fr.readAsDataURL(files[0]);
    }
}
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