在JavaScript中从Base64字符串创建BLOB

2020/09/26 03:21 · javascript ·  · 0评论

我在一个字符串中有Base64编码的二进制数据:

const contentType = 'image/png';
const b64Data = 'iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAUAAAAFCAYAAACNbyblAAAAHElEQVQI12P4//8/w38GIAXDIBKE0DHxgljNBAAO9TXL0Y4OHwAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==';

我想创建一个blob:包含此数据URL并将其显示给用户:

const blob = new Blob(????, {type: contentType});
const blobUrl = URL.createObjectURL(blob);

window.location = blobUrl;

我一直无法弄清楚如何创建BLOB。

在某些情况下,我可以通过使用data:URL 来避免这种情况

const dataUrl = `data:${contentType};base64,${b64Data}`;

window.location = dataUrl;

但是,在大多数情况下,data:URL太大了。


如何在JavaScript中将Base64字符串解码为BLOB对象?

atob函数会将Base64编码的字符串解码为一个新字符串,并为二进制数据的每个字节提供一个字符。

const byteCharacters = atob(b64Data);

每个字符的代码点(charCode)将是字节的值。我们可以通过使用.charCodeAt方法对字符串中的每个字符应用字节值数组

const byteNumbers = new Array(byteCharacters.length);
for (let i = 0; i < byteCharacters.length; i++) {
    byteNumbers[i] = byteCharacters.charCodeAt(i);
}

您可以将该字节值数组传递给Uint8Array构造函数,以将其转换为实型字节数组

const byteArray = new Uint8Array(byteNumbers);

通过将其包装在数组中并将其传递给Blob构造函数,可以将其转换为BLOB

const blob = new Blob([byteArray], {type: contentType});

上面的代码有效。但是,通过处理byteCharacters较小的片而不是一次全部,可以稍微提高性能在我的粗略测试中,512字节似乎是一个不错的切片大小。这为我们提供了以下功能。

const b64toBlob = (b64Data, contentType='', sliceSize=512) => {
  const byteCharacters = atob(b64Data);
  const byteArrays = [];

  for (let offset = 0; offset < byteCharacters.length; offset += sliceSize) {
    const slice = byteCharacters.slice(offset, offset + sliceSize);

    const byteNumbers = new Array(slice.length);
    for (let i = 0; i < slice.length; i++) {
      byteNumbers[i] = slice.charCodeAt(i);
    }

    const byteArray = new Uint8Array(byteNumbers);
    byteArrays.push(byteArray);
  }

  const blob = new Blob(byteArrays, {type: contentType});
  return blob;
}
const blob = b64toBlob(b64Data, contentType);
const blobUrl = URL.createObjectURL(blob);

window.location = blobUrl;

完整示例:

这是一个没有任何依赖项或库的最小方法。

它需要新的提取API。
我可以使用吗?

var url = "data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAUAAAAFCAYAAACNbyblAAAAHElEQVQI12P4//8/w38GIAXDIBKE0DHxgljNBAAO9TXL0Y4OHwAAAABJRU5ErkJggg=="

fetch(url)
.then(res => res.blob())
.then(console.log)

使用此方法,您还可以轻松获取ReadableStream,ArrayBuffer,文本和JSON。

(这也可以与
Node中的
node-fetch一起使用)

作为功​​能:

const b64toBlob = (base64, type = 'application/octet-stream') => 
  fetch(`data:${type};base64,${base64}`).then(res => res.blob())

我对Jeremy的ES6同步版本进行了简单的性能测试。

同步版本将阻止UI一段时间。
保持devtool打开会降低获取性能

优化(但可读性较差)的实现:

function base64toBlob(base64Data, contentType) {
    contentType = contentType || '';
    var sliceSize = 1024;
    var byteCharacters = atob(base64Data);
    var bytesLength = byteCharacters.length;
    var slicesCount = Math.ceil(bytesLength / sliceSize);
    var byteArrays = new Array(slicesCount);

    for (var sliceIndex = 0; sliceIndex < slicesCount; ++sliceIndex) {
        var begin = sliceIndex * sliceSize;
        var end = Math.min(begin + sliceSize, bytesLength);

        var bytes = new Array(end - begin);
        for (var offset = begin, i = 0; offset < end; ++i, ++offset) {
            bytes[i] = byteCharacters[offset].charCodeAt(0);
        }
        byteArrays[sliceIndex] = new Uint8Array(bytes);
    }
    return new Blob(byteArrays, { type: contentType });
}

对于所有浏览器支持,尤其是在Android上,也许可以添加以下内容:

try{
    blob = new Blob(byteArrays, {type : contentType});
}
catch(e){
    // TypeError old Google Chrome and Firefox
    window.BlobBuilder = window.BlobBuilder ||
                         window.WebKitBlobBuilder ||
                         window.MozBlobBuilder ||
                         window.MSBlobBuilder;
    if(e.name == 'TypeError' && window.BlobBuilder){
        var bb = new BlobBuilder();
        bb.append(byteArrays);
        blob = bb.getBlob(contentType);
    }
    else if(e.name == "InvalidStateError"){
        // InvalidStateError (tested on FF13 WinXP)
        blob = new Blob(byteArrays, {type : contentType});
    }
    else{
        // We're screwed, blob constructor unsupported entirely
    }
}

参见以下示例:https : //jsfiddle.net/pqhdce2L/

function b64toBlob(b64Data, contentType, sliceSize) {
  contentType = contentType || '';
  sliceSize = sliceSize || 512;

  var byteCharacters = atob(b64Data);
  var byteArrays = [];

  for (var offset = 0; offset < byteCharacters.length; offset += sliceSize) {
    var slice = byteCharacters.slice(offset, offset + sliceSize);

    var byteNumbers = new Array(slice.length);
    for (var i = 0; i < slice.length; i++) {
      byteNumbers[i] = slice.charCodeAt(i);
    }

    var byteArray = new Uint8Array(byteNumbers);

    byteArrays.push(byteArray);
  }
    
  var blob = new Blob(byteArrays, {type: contentType});
  return blob;
}


var contentType = 'image/png';
var b64Data = Your Base64 encode;

var blob = b64toBlob(b64Data, contentType);
var blobUrl = URL.createObjectURL(blob);

var img = document.createElement('img');
img.src = blobUrl;
document.body.appendChild(img);

对于图像数据,我发现它更易于使用canvas.toBlob(异步)

function b64toBlob(b64, onsuccess, onerror) {
    var img = new Image();

    img.onerror = onerror;

    img.onload = function onload() {
        var canvas = document.createElement('canvas');
        canvas.width = img.width;
        canvas.height = img.height;

        var ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');
        ctx.drawImage(img, 0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);

        canvas.toBlob(onsuccess);
    };

    img.src = b64;
}

var base64Data = 'data:image/jpg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQA...';
b64toBlob(base64Data,
    function(blob) {
        var url = window.URL.createObjectURL(blob);
        // do something with url
    }, function(error) {
        // handle error
    });

我注意到,像Jeremy建议的那样对数据进行切片时,Internet Explorer 11的速度变得异常慢。对于Chrome来说确实如此,但是将切片的数据传递到Blob构造函数时,Internet Explorer似乎有问题。在我的计算机上,传递5 MB的数据会使Internet Explorer崩溃,并且内存消耗正在急剧增加。Chrome会立即创建Blob。

运行以下代码进行比较:

var byteArrays = [],
    megaBytes = 2,
    byteArray = new Uint8Array(megaBytes*1024*1024),
    block,
    blobSlowOnIE, blobFastOnIE,
    i;

for (i = 0; i < (megaBytes*1024); i++) {
    block = new Uint8Array(1024);
    byteArrays.push(block);
}

//debugger;

console.profile("No Slices");
blobSlowOnIE = new Blob(byteArrays, { type: 'text/plain'});
console.profileEnd();

console.profile("Slices");
blobFastOnIE = new Blob([byteArray], { type: 'text/plain'});
console.profileEnd();

因此,我决定将Jeremy描述的两种方法都包含在一个函数中。这归功于他。

function base64toBlob(base64Data, contentType, sliceSize) {

    var byteCharacters,
        byteArray,
        byteNumbers,
        blobData,
        blob;

    contentType = contentType || '';

    byteCharacters = atob(base64Data);

    // Get BLOB data sliced or not
    blobData = sliceSize ? getBlobDataSliced() : getBlobDataAtOnce();

    blob = new Blob(blobData, { type: contentType });

    return blob;


    /*
     * Get BLOB data in one slice.
     * => Fast in Internet Explorer on new Blob(...)
     */
    function getBlobDataAtOnce() {
        byteNumbers = new Array(byteCharacters.length);

        for (var i = 0; i < byteCharacters.length; i++) {
            byteNumbers[i] = byteCharacters.charCodeAt(i);
        }

        byteArray = new Uint8Array(byteNumbers);

        return [byteArray];
    }

    /*
     * Get BLOB data in multiple slices.
     * => Slow in Internet Explorer on new Blob(...)
     */
    function getBlobDataSliced() {

        var slice,
            byteArrays = [];

        for (var offset = 0; offset < byteCharacters.length; offset += sliceSize) {
            slice = byteCharacters.slice(offset, offset + sliceSize);

            byteNumbers = new Array(slice.length);

            for (var i = 0; i < slice.length; i++) {
                byteNumbers[i] = slice.charCodeAt(i);
            }

            byteArray = new Uint8Array(byteNumbers);

            // Add slice
            byteArrays.push(byteArray);
        }

        return byteArrays;
    }
}

对于像我这样的所有复制粘贴爱好者,这里有一个可在Chrome,Firefox和Edge上使用的熟下载功能:

window.saveFile = function (bytesBase64, mimeType, fileName) {
var fileUrl = "data:" + mimeType + ";base64," + bytesBase64;
fetch(fileUrl)
    .then(response => response.blob())
    .then(blob => {
        var link = window.document.createElement("a");
        link.href = window.URL.createObjectURL(blob, { type: mimeType });
        link.download = fileName;
        document.body.appendChild(link);
        link.click();
        document.body.removeChild(link);
    });
}

如果您愿意在项目中添加一个依赖项,那么不错的blob-utilnpm软件包提供了一个方便的base64StringToBlob功能。添加到您的文件后,package.json您可以像这样使用它:

import { base64StringToBlob } from 'blob-util';

const contentType = 'image/png';
const b64Data = 'iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAUAAAAFCAYAAACNbyblAAAAHElEQVQI12P4//8/w38GIAXDIBKE0DHxgljNBAAO9TXL0Y4OHwAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==';

const blob = base64StringToBlob(b64Data, contentType);

// Do whatever you need with your blob...

我发布了一种更具声明性的同步Base64转换方式。虽然异步fetch().blob()非常简洁,我非常喜欢这种解决方案,但是即使使用了polyfill,它也无法在Internet Explorer 11上运行(可能是Edge-我还没有测试过该解决方案)-看看我对Endless的评论。发布更多详细信息。

const blobPdfFromBase64String = base64String => {
   const byteArray = Uint8Array.from(
     atob(base64String)
       .split('')
       .map(char => char.charCodeAt(0))
   );
  return new Blob([byteArray], { type: 'application/pdf' });
};

奖金

如果要打印,可以执行以下操作:

const isIE11 = !!(window.navigator && window.navigator.msSaveOrOpenBlob); // Or however you want to check it
const printPDF = blob => {
   try {
     isIE11
       ? window.navigator.msSaveOrOpenBlob(blob, 'documents.pdf')
       : printJS(URL.createObjectURL(blob)); // http://printjs.crabbly.com/
   } catch (e) {
     throw PDFError;
   }
};

奖励x 2-在Internet Explorer 11的新选项卡中打开BLOB文件

如果您能够对服务器上的Base64字符串进行一些预处理,则可以在某些URL下公开它,并使用printJS:)中的链接

以下是我的TypeScript代码,可以轻松将其转换为JavaScript,您可以使用

/**
 * Convert BASE64 to BLOB
 * @param base64Image Pass Base64 image data to convert into the BLOB
 */
private convertBase64ToBlob(base64Image: string) {
  // Split into two parts
  const parts = base64Image.split(';base64,');

  // Hold the content type
  const imageType = parts[0].split(':')[1];

  // Decode Base64 string
  const decodedData = window.atob(parts[1]);

  // Create UNIT8ARRAY of size same as row data length
  const uInt8Array = new Uint8Array(decodedData.length);

  // Insert all character code into uInt8Array
  for (let i = 0; i < decodedData.length; ++i) {
    uInt8Array[i] = decodedData.charCodeAt(i);
  }

  // Return BLOB image after conversion
  return new Blob([uInt8Array], { type: imageType });
}

带有访存的方法是最好的解决方案,但是如果有人需要使用不访存的方法,那么这里就是,因为前面提到的方法对我不起作用:

function makeblob(dataURL) {
    const BASE64_MARKER = ';base64,';
    const parts = dataURL.split(BASE64_MARKER);
    const contentType = parts[0].split(':')[1];
    const raw = window.atob(parts[1]);
    const rawLength = raw.length;
    const uInt8Array = new Uint8Array(rawLength);

    for (let i = 0; i < rawLength; ++i) {
        uInt8Array[i] = raw.charCodeAt(i);
    }

    return new Blob([uInt8Array], { type: contentType });
}
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